The heart is a cavity, a muscular organ cavity that pumps blood through the blood vessels by repetitive rhythmic contractions. Blood supplies oxygen and nutrients to the body, also helps eliminate metabolic waste. But you know, the heart also has an enzyme, is that a heart enzyme ...?
Cardiac enzymes are enzymes that play a role in supporting the work of the heart muscle. When damage occurs, such as in a heart attack, this enzyme will increase in number in the blood. Therefore, examination of cardiac enzymes is often done as a way to diagnose a heart attack.
When someone complains of chest pain suspected of being a heart attack, the medical officer will carry out a series of examinations, including a heart enzyme test. The increasing number of heart enzymes in the blood shows the greater damage that occurs in the heart of the patient.
Heart & Type Enzymes
Some types of heart enzymes, and proteins that are often examined by the medical person when someone is suspected of suffering a heart attack, namely:
1. Creatin Kinase (CK).
This enzyme is found in body tissues such as skeletal muscles, and heart and brain organs. An increase in the CK enzyme can indicate a condition of a heart attack.
CK levels begin to be detected in the blood within 4-6 hours after the heart muscle is damaged, and will increase up to 24 hours after a heart attack.
However, CK can also increase in several other conditions, such as rhabdomyolysis, infection, kidney damage, and muscular dystrophy.
Troponin is a type of protein found in the heart and muscles. There are 3 types of troponin, namely troponin T, C, and I, but what is specifically examined along with the heart enzyme is troponin T and I.
Troponin levels can increase within 2-26 hours after damage to the heart muscle. Other than because of a heart attack, troponin levels can also increase when there is inflammation and damage to the heart muscle due to other diseases, such as myocarditis.
Therefore, special troponin examination is now available Called High - Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin (HS-CTN). This type of examination can better detect heart damage from a heart attack.
Is a protein found in the skeletal muscle and heart muscle. Myoglobin levels will increase within 2-12 hours after a heart attack, and return to normal levels within 24-36 hours after a heart attack.
Because it can increase in other diseases, myoglobin levels are often checked together with heart enzymes and other heart tests, such as an EKG to diagnose a heart attack.
In practice, a diagnosis of a heart attack is not only based on the results of a cardiac enzyme examination, but also requires a physical examination by a doctor, plus other supporting tests, such as ECG, angiography, and cardiac catheterization.
Cardiac Enzyme Examination Procedure
Cardiac enzyme examination procedures are quite simple and no special preparation is needed, for example having to fast first or stop taking certain drugs.
It's just that, the medical will ask some important things starting from the history of heart disease from the family or that may be experienced by the previous patient, a history of drug consumption, to the symptoms felt by the patient before conducting a cardiac enzyme examination. Initially, this examination is very similar to a blood test, with the following steps:
1. The medical officer or doctor will tie the patient's arm with a tourniquet to slow blood flow and make the veins more visible.
2. The medical officer identifies the location of the vein, then cleanses the area to be injected with alcohol.
3. Medical staff began taking blood using a syringe.
4. After the blood has been taken and the syringe is pulled out of the vein, the medical officer will attach gauze or tape to cover the injection marks.
When feeling symptoms of a heart attack such as severe chest pain that radiates to the arm or neck, sweating cold and weak, then the patient needs to immediately go to the hospital to get further examination and treatment.
If the results of a cardiac enzyme check make sure the patient has a heart attack, the medical officer will provide treatment, such as placing an IV and providing oxygen, blood thinning drugs, clopidogrel, and drugs to destroy blockages in the heart arteries.
On certain issues, after receiving treatment at the hospital, patients will be referred to a heart specialist for cardiac catheterization, or heart surgery. After that, sufferers need to be treated in a hospital to monitor their condition.
During treatment, the medical officer will monitor the condition of the patient and periodically check the heart enzymes to assess the condition of the heart. Then after being allowed to go home, medical personnel usually will also advise patients to undergo a healthy diet and lifestyle in order to maintain their heart health, and reduce their risk of developing a subsequent heart attack...