Defecate bleeding, is a condition when there is blood in the stool. This condition is a symptom of bleeding in the digestive tract.
Bloody bowel movements, can lead to serious medical conditions and fatal consequences.
Therefore, it is important to immediately see a doctor if there is blood in the stool.
Causes and Symptoms of bloody bowel movements
Bleeding bowel movements can be divided into hematochezia and melena, with very diverse causes and symptoms. below will be explained each condition along with the symptoms and causes.
Hematochezia is caused by bleeding in the lower digestive tract, especially in the large intestine.
Some conditions that can result in lower gastrointestinal bleeding are:
Diverticulitis is inflammation or infection in diverticula (Abnormally small pockets that form in the digestive tract).
- Inflammation of the intestine.
Inflammation of the intestine is an inflammatory bowel condition. Inflammatory bowel can also refer to two digestive tract disorders, namely Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Polyps are growth of abnormal tissue stemmed and small, less than 1.5 cm.
- Benign tumor.
Benign tumors that grow in the large intestine and rectum can cause bleeding.
- Colon cancer.
Colon cancer is a cancer that grows in the colon (Large intestine).
- Fisura ani.
Anal fissures are open sores on the anal canal or rectum.
- Hemorrhoids or hemorrhoids.
Widening of blood vessels in the anal area which are at risk of causing bleeding.
In people with hematochezia, the blood that comes out with the stool will look red. This is because bleeding occurs in an area not far from the rectum, so the blood comes out still fresh.
Hematochezia is sometimes accompanied by diarrhea, fever, changes in the frequency of bleeding bowel movements, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Besides being able to come out with feces, blood can also drip from the anus.
Contact your doctor immediately if hematochezia is accompanied by shock symptoms, in the form of:
- Small amount of urine
- Blurred vision
- Pale and cold skin
- Hard to breathe.
Melena is caused by bleeding in the upper digestive tract.
The conditions that can cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding include:
- Broken esophageal varices.
Esophageal varices are widening of the vein in the area of the esophagus (Esophagus).
Gastritis is inflammation of the protective layer in the stomach.
- Gastric ulcer.
Gastric ulcer is a wound that forms on the surface of the wall
- Gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer is a condition characterized by the growth of cancer cells in the stomach wall.
- Mallory-Weiss syndrome.
This condition is characterized by tears in the tissue in the area of the esophagus bordering the stomach.
The symptoms of melena are stools that are dark like asphalt, and soft and sticky textured.
Dark stool is caused by mixing blood with stomach acid, enzymes, or bacteria in the large intestine, before going out with feces.
Melena can be accompanied by vomiting of blood, the body feels tired, dizzy and fainting.
Diagnosis of bloody bowel movements
Doctors can diagnose bleeding bowel movements, bleed by seeing the patient's stool directly or through a digital rectal examination.
The doctor will also ensure the patient's condition is stable by examining vital signs, namely the frequency of breath, pulse, body temperature, and blood pressure.
To ensure the cause of bleeding bowel movements, the doctor will carry out a follow-up examination in the form of:
Endoscopy is the act of inserting an elastic hose equipped with a camera (Endoscope) into the patient's body.
Depending on the part of the body to be examined, the doctor can insert an endoscope by mouth (Gastroscopy), or through the anus (Colonoscopy).
The doctor can also take a few tissue samples (Biopsy) to be examined in the laboratory, when doing endoscopy.
In addition to using a hose-shaped device, endoscopy can be done by swallowing a capsule containing a small camera.
The camera will take pictures of the digestive tract, then send the image to a recording device that is outside the body.
- X-rays with barium contrast.
The doctor will ask the patient to take contrast or coloring liquid made from barium. Barium will help doctors see the digestive tract more clearly in X-rays.
Angiography is the examination of X-ray photos that are preceded by injections of fluids in contrast to blood vessels. Contrast fluids will help doctors see more clearly blood vessels suspected of bleeding.
- Radionuclear examination.
Radionuclear examination is done by injecting radioactive fluid into a blood vessel, then the doctor will monitor the patient's blood flow through a special camera.
Laparotomy is a surgical procedure in the abdominal wall, to see the source of bleeding, directly from the stomach.
Treatment of bloody bowel movements
Treatment Bleeding depends on the amount of blood coming out and the underlying cause.
Treatment is intended to overcome blood deficiency or anemia, stop bleeding, and prevent bleeding from occurring again.
In moderate to severe bleeding, hematochezia can cause low blood pressure, dizziness, and shock. Patients with these symptoms must immediately be given replacement fluid through infusion and blood transfusion.
Then to stop bleeding, the doctor will run an endoscope. Besides being used to determine the cause and location of bleeding, endoscopy can also be used to treat bleeding through the following methods:
This procedure uses electric current to burn tissue or blood vessels that cause bleeding.
- Band ligation.
This procedure is done by binding to hemorrhoids or swollen esophageal varices. This action will inhibit blood flow that causes bleeding.
- Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection.
In this procedure, the doctor will inject a special substance, namely cyanoacrylate, in the area that is bleeding.
Cyanoacrylate, is a synthetic adhesive that can stop bleeding.
Besides through endoscopy, the surgeon can perform surgery to stop the bleeding directly.
There is also an embolization technique, which is to insert special material into a blood vessel through a catheter to stop bleeding.
After bleeding defecation is resolved, the doctor will treat the underlying cause so that bloody bowel movements do not re-occur. Some ways that can be done are:
- Diet pattern.
Doctors will recommend consuming fibrous foods, such as fruits and vegetables. If needed, the doctor will give fibrous supplements to soften the stool.
- Provision of medicines
Such as: Antibiotics, Lowering stomach acid production drugs, Chemotherapy drugs, Immunosuppressive drugs, TNF inhibitors (Tumor necrosis factor)
- Medical treatment.
For example is a colostomy to treat colon cancer, and radiotherapy to treat gastric cancer.
Prevention of bloody bowel movements
The following are efforts you can take to prevent bloody bowel movements:
- Consume balanced healthy and nutritious foods
- Exercise regularly
- Maintain an ideal body weight
- Quit smoking
- Routine blood pressure and cholesterol checks
- Keep the rectal area dry
- Clean the rectum with warm water and mild soap
- Drink lots of water
- Avoid pushing too hard when bleeding bowel movements
- Do not delay bleeding when you feel it
- Don't sit too long on a hard surface.